Coruscant , originally called Notron, also known as Imperial Center or the Queen of the Core, was a planet located in the Galactic Core. It was generally agreed that Coruscant was, during most of galactic history, the most politically important world in the galaxy. At various times, it was the capital of the Galactic Republic, the Galactic Empire.
Over the centuries, Coruscant had developed into an ecumenopolis, with a total of 5,127 levels of city built up from the crust by the time of the Clone Wars. The actual planet-wide metropolis of Coruscant was called Galactic City. Under the Galactic Republic, the names Republic City or the City of Spires were also used to reference the city. It was also called Imperial City under the Galactic Empire, and New Republic City under the New Republic. However, in practice, Galactic City and its other names were sometimes applied to the Senate District, the central government center and de facto capital of Coruscant.
Geologically, the planet was composed of a molten core with a rocky mantle and a silicate rock crust. At its poles were huge ice caps that were popular spots for tourists. The entire surface of Coruscant was covered by sprawling kilometers-high ecumenopolis, and boasted a population of over a hundred billion to several trillion, depending on the era. Following the end of the Clone Wars, an official census noted 1 trillion official permanent residents. The statistics did not include transients, temporary workers, unregistered populace, nor residents of orbital facilities. Because of these omissions, the actual population of Coruscant was estimated to be three times the official record.
Coruscanti skyscrapers dwarfed all the original natural features, including mountains, as well as floors of oceans which once covered a large portion of Coruscant’s surface. Areas of Galactic City were broken up into 5,127 levels which were then divided into mega-blocks, blocks, and sub-blocks. Coruscant itself was divided into quadrants, which were divided into zones. Below the skyscrapers was Coruscant’s undercity, where sunlight never reached. Artificial lighting illuminated these lower levels and advertisement holograms could be seen everywhere. There were numerous establishments for entertainment, catering to a myriad of alien species. The residents were collectively referred to as Twilighters.
Coruscant was once a world mostly covered in oceans. However, all natural bodies of water were drained and stored in vast caverns beneath the city as a result of years of overpopulation. The only body of water visible was the artificial Western Sea, with many artificially-created islands floating on it, used by tourists on holidays.
With no other bodies of water available to feed and water its trillion inhabitants, Coruscant’s architects, along with many others from around the galaxy, worked together to build a self-contained eco-system in the massive buildings set all over the planet. Polar cap stations also melted ice and distributed water throughout the planet-wide city through a complex series of pipes.
“The port crowding has reached dangerous levels.
We can no longer assure the safety of newcomers to this world, or to the citizenry residing adjacent to the ports.
In the interests of security, these new measures are needed.”
―Minister Zelebitha Effhod explains newly-introduced security measures
In 24 BBY, former Jedi Master Count Dooku reemerged on Raxus Prime and delivered an impassioned speech that presented the case for the Republic’s irreversible corruption. Thus began the Separatist Crisis, in which thousands of worlds seceded from the Republic and joined Dooku’s newly inaugurated Confederacy of Independent Systems. Westport, which handled the bulk of Coruscant’s emigrant departures, experienced a 6,000% increase in traffic during the crisis, while Eastport took in masses of refugees from seceded worlds. On 13:3:6, Supreme Chancellor Palpatine announced on the general channels of the HoloNet from the Senate Rotunda that 5:16 would be the date of a full Senate vote on the creation of a centralized military to oppose the Separatist threat. On the morning of 13:3:7, a three-hour brawl between Houk and Weequay immigrants at the Eastport processing station left 15 dead and 45 wounded. On 13:4:4, a garbage launcher misfire destroyed four surrounding blocks of the cityscape and littered the entire Desrini District with dangerous industrial waste, which attracted huge numbers of scavenging dianogas to the area over the following months. Later in 13:4, the Coruscant Ministry of Ingress, in response to port overcrowding and the threat of Separatist terrorism, issued new restrictions on all interstellar traffic inbound to Coruscant.
Meanwhile, the Military Creation Act spawned increasingly vocal advocates and opponents, and on 13:5:9, large-scale riots were narrowly averted when the Senate Guard was dispatched to disperse crowds gathering at the entrances of the Senate Rotunda. On 13:5:16, an assassination attempt on Naboo senator Padmé Amidala was made when she arrived on Coruscant to vote against the Military Creation Act. A bomb destroyed her starship shortly after its landing, killing several of her handmaidens and guards. Jedi Knights Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi were assigned to protect her, and during the following night they foiled another attempt at Padmé’s penthouse by Zam Wesell, leading to an airspeeder chase which ended in a showdown at the Outlander Club, a sports bar and club in an entertainment district in the lower levels of the planet. The Jedi captured Wesell, but she was killed by Jango Fett. Kenobi’s subsequent investigation of Wesell’s death led him to Kamino, setting off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of the Clone Wars.
In 22 BBY, the Clone Wars erupted when the newly-created Grand Army of the Republic attacked the Confederate-controlled world of Geonosis. Coruscant experienced a number of radical changes during the galaxy-spanning conflict. Large swathes of the cityscape were laid low to make room for the construction of military staging areas. Millions of citizens were displaced by the urban renewal, most of them impoverished, members of alien species loyal to the Confederacy of Independent Systems, or both. Initially, there was public outcry, but such dissidence was either ignored or quashed. Acts of terrorism were also commonplace, with indiscriminate tactics such as bombings resulting in hundreds, or sometimes thousands, of casualties. Most were the products of Separatist cells, while some isolated incidents were of questionable origin. Assassination attempts on influential Republic politicians were common. Notable incidents included the raid of Ziro’s palace after the Republic discovered the Hutt’s affiliation with Count Dooku; the holding of Senator Meena Tills hostage by Korunnai terrorists which was actually cover for an attempt to turn the Corporate Sector against the Republic; and the Senate hostage crisis at the Republic Executive Building that was carried out by bounty hunter Cad Bane to free Ziro the Hutt. The year 21 BBY saw a wave of such disasters, including the Coruscant Insurrection by Count Dooku and Dark Jedi Trenox to steal a holocron at the Jedi Temple; the bombing of the freighter Star of Iskin that killed former Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum and thousands on the surface as a result of raining debris; a terrorist attack on a power generator that resulted in power outages and fires throughout the Senate District; the assassination of Senator Viento by rogue Jedi Quinlan Vos; and the murders of Senator Onaconda Farr and Senator Mee Deechi by Farr’s personal aide Lolo Purs.
Also, at some point during the Clone Wars, there was an incident involving a Zillo Beast from Malastare. After the creature was transported to Coruscant by order of Chancellor Palpatine, the Zillo Beast was subjected to examination and experimentation. When Palpatine ordered its destruction in order to hasten the procedure, the Zillo Beast broke free and immediately sought vengeance on the man who was intent on killing it. As it rampaged through Galactic City, thousands of citizens tried to flee in terror while the Jedi and their clone forces scrambled to neutralize the creature. Upon reaching the Executive Building, the Zillo Beast nearly succeeded in killing the Chancellor, only for its efforts to be thwarted by the Jedi. Although they succeeded in killing it, Chancellor Palpatine discreetly ordered that the Zillo Beast be cloned to conduct further research.
Such incidents prompted the Republic to implement numerous changes on Coruscant in the name of increased security. Clone troopers of the Republic’s newly formed Grand Army were dispatched throughout the planet on regular patrols as the capital’s military guard. The fanatically pro-Human COMPOR was founded; the local SAGroup, led by Nenevanth Tion, marched in a parade of Republic patriotism on Coruscant. COMPOR pressured Tannon Praji into deporting from the capital all members of species whose homeworld had joined the Confederacy. Following the Star of Iskin incident, the Senate approved the Enhanced Security and Enforcement Act, which allowed Supreme Chancellor Palpatine to strip civil liberties in the name of civil security. Coruscant fell under particularly heavy government supervision, with security becoming gradually tighter as one traveled deeper into the levels of the Galactic City. The planet’s lower levels, which had once been a haven for crime and an unregulated market, became heavily subdued, such that illicit goods and services became difficult to find. While most Coruscanti were content with surrendering these and other liberties for security, the changes did not sit well with the galactic capital’s alien population, particularly those that were associated with the leadership of the Confederacy. Many Geonosians, Muuns, Neimoidians, and Gossams suffered ostracization on Coruscant, while many others were forced to flee the world altogether. In addition, numerous rumors surfaced regarding antiwar demonstrations that were quelled with forceful measures, seizure of private property, and disappearances. As disturbing as these abuses of power were, proof of the acts was either nonexistent or easily discredited. Throughout the remainder of the war, the Enhanced Security and Enforcement Act was altered by amendments known as the Security Acts, which, although intended to further enhance security throughout the Republic, also contributed to Palpatine’s growing power over the government and the weakening of the authority of the Galactic Senate.
Despite the numerous precautions taken, in 19 BBY, on 15:5:20, the Confederacy of Independent Systems succeeded in making a surprise raid on Coruscant. Bypassing the heavily fortified Corellian sector by use of secret hyperspace routes through the Deep Core provided by Darth Sidious, a Separatist fleet under the command of the dreaded General Grievous took the city planet completely unaware. While the Separatist ships engaged the Republic home defense fleet, an army of battle droids descended upon Galactic City. The invasion distracted the defending Jedi and clone forces while General Grievous and a squad of his elite MagnaGuards captured Chancellor Palpatine. However, Jedi Knights Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi succeeded in rescuing the Supreme Chancellor from the infamous Separatist flagship Invisible Hand. The Battle of Coruscant eventually turned in the Republic’s favor, and the Separatist armada was forced into a full retreat. However, the battle had shaken much of the population, and large portions of the city had been decimated by falling ships or collateral damage caused in the vicious fighting.
At the conclusion of the Clone Wars, Chancellor Palpatine brought about the destruction of the Jedi Order by issuing Order 66 to all clone troopers throughout the galaxy from his executive office. In the Grand Convocation Chamber of the Senate Building, Palpatine announced the creation of his New Order to the Galactic Senate. With the Jedi all but destroyed, Palpatine proclaimed his intentions to reorganize the Republic into the first Galactic Empire, and thus declared himself Emperor. Meanwhile, Alderaanian senator Bail Organa, having witnessed the massacre at the Jedi Temple, transported surviving Jedi Masters Yoda and Obi-Wan Kenobi to Coruscant, where, at the Temple, the two Jedi dismantled a coded signal urging Jedi to gather there. Yoda later confronted Palpatine at the Senate Building, but failed to kill him.
When formed to the Galactic Empire
As with the Republic, Coruscant continued to function as the galactic capital, but was renamed “Imperial Center,” while Galactic City was re-dubbed “Imperial City.” While the planet’s name was officially changed during Palpatine’s rule, most working-class denizens of the Galactic Empire continued to call the planet-city by its old name. As part of the Humanocentric policies of the Empire, non-Human species were also compelled to live in segregated areas of Imperial City, the largest and best-known of which was known as Invisec. Those that did enter other parts, whether by intention or mistake, were punished brutally. Coruscant was also the site of the Imperial Senate until the body’s dissolution in 0 BBY.
Emperor Palpatine also began to shape Coruscant with his own designs, and this included the installation of almost one million surveillance systems throughout the ecumenopolis. Massive shield generators were placed all over Coruscant, and where the shield segments overlapped, powerful storms would brew. Although Coruscant had always been known for its high concentration of thunderstorms due to rising vapor from the billions of buildings and homes, the increased frequency lent the planet a foreboding, almost Gothic look. Palpatine also arranged for the Executor-class Star Dreadnought Lusankya to be buried beneath the Manarai Mountains district. Later, the massive battleship was used as a private prison by Director of Imperial Intelligence Ysanne Isard. Palpatine also had the Palace of the Republic rebuilt and renamed the Imperial Palace. The Palace, a massive pyramidal structure which was by far the largest structure on Coruscant, was rumored to also be the largest building in the entire galaxy, with the possible exceptions of the massive Sharu plastic pyramids of the Rafa system. Upon the completion of the Palace, Palpatine ordered the construction of a smaller castle residence for Lord Darth Vader nearby. Although Vader already possessed a fortress retreat on Coruscant and several other retreats off-world, the castle would function as his main residence.
Under Imperial rule, illegal trade flourished on Coruscant, where the nobility coveted certain prohibited items, including slaves and banned artwork, as status symbols. Palpatine tolerated such activity, as it kept minor nobles occupied with their own intrigues and provided him with a means of blackmailing some nobles into his service. Around this time, the most prominent spice dealer on the planet was Wendell Wright-Sims, a wealthy socialite who operated with the express permission of the Emperor himself and took great pains to ensure that his product was the finest available. Most members of the Alliance to Restore the Republic considered venturing to Coruscant a foolhardy endeavor; nevertheless, Coruscanti resistance cells did exist, based in the planet’s Factory District. Shasheva Astopone, the heiress to an exporting fortune, used her wealth to fund some of the local Rebel cells and smuggled goods to and from Coruscant for the Alliance through her business.
Coruscant was home to a variety of species, though Humans made up the majority. Most of the planet’s native species were either extinct or lived in the lowest parts of the Underworld by the time of the Old Republic. The planet was thought to be the home of Humans. Though not all well known citizens were always born on Coruscant, many considered the planet their home.
One of the oldest planetary police forces in the galaxy, the Coruscant Security Force (CSF) served as the primary law enforcement during most of Coruscant’s history, especially during the Galactic Republic, the New Republic, and the Galactic Alliance. It worked closely with the Senate Guard and the Jedi Peacekeepers during the Old Republic, but maintained ultimate control of policing the planet. This included regular patrols of the various districts and neighborhoods of Galactic City, criminal investigations, counter-terror, counter-espionage operations, crowd control at major events, and public disturbances, maintaining the planet’s skylanes, handing out speeding tickets, diplomatic protection, and responding to a variety of other emergencies and situations.
During the later years of the Republic, foot patrol on the upper levels was mainly the responsibility of police droids, though humanoid and organic police officers were also present especially in the underworld police detective division, and special units. Special units existed for various tasks including special teams, Forensics Unit, the Organized Crime Unit, the Anti-Terrorism Unit,, the Tactical and Operational force,, the Customs Enforcement Division, and the CSF’s Traffic Division which was charged with maintaining order in the massive skylanes of Galactic City.
During the Galactic Empire, the Coruscant Guard was placed in overall command of Coruscant’s security, but the CSF continued as a police force though subservient to the Guard. After the formation of the New Republic, the Guard was disbanded and the CSF were returned to their primary status which continued throughout the Galactic Alliance. When the threat of a new civil war between Corellia and the Galactic Alliance threatened the safety of Coruscant, several CSF officers joined the new Galactic Alliance Guard. However as the war continued and the GAG’s methods became more and more brutal, most CSF officers left and returned to the CSF.
Public health and safety
Fire fighting, rescue, and cleanup was performed by the Coruscant Rescue Ops. Each planetary district maintained their own teams. Many Rescue Ops were poorly educated and underpaid, as their work was thought more fitting for droids. At the higher end of the Rescue Ops were Coruscant’s fire-fighting teams; they piloted firespeeders, wore fire and radiation-proof body suits (including bronze helmets), and were equipped with fire-suppression backpacks that fed handheld hose-guns. These teams protected the endless urban sprawl from disastrous fires and explosions. Their duties were later continued by Coruscant Fire and Rescue during the Galactic Alliance.
The Coruscant Health Administration was charged with protecting the populace from various diseases and infections that could develop and spread in a large city. They also focused on issues of drugs such as death sticks and inoculations for new immigrants and migrants. They worked together with medcenters to ensure the general health of the population. However, the lower levels were mostly left to their own devices. Few had access to proper health care, police, or fire services. Most of these services were concentrated on the upper levels.
Entertainment and sports
Coruscant had many attractions to offer its visitors and inhabitants. Chief among them was the Uscru Entertainment District. In it could be found the Galaxies Opera House, a favorite location of then-Chancellor Palpatine. Coruscant was also home to the Coruscant Opera, Monument Plaza, and the Galactic Museum, all of which were popular tourist sites providing timeless entertainment and enjoyment.
Chin-Bret was one of the most popular sports on Coruscant during the last years of the Galactic Republic. The sport was played by chin-bretiers who carried pikers to play the game. The sport was most famously played at the T’Chuk Arena.
In 3 BBY, Coruscant hosted the Galactic Games. During the event, an assassination attempt was made on Emperor Palpatine.